I was reading a recently released book, "Five Ancestor Fist Kung Fu - The Way of Ngo Cho Kun" by Alexander L. Co. This book is published by Charles E. Tuttle Publishing and the ISBN is ISBN 0-8048-3153-X. There is an interesting commentary on Uechi-Ryu and San Chin on pages 35-36:
Uechi-ryu, another major Okinawan karate style, also bears a striking resemblance to ngo cho kun. In the early 1900's Uechi-ryu karate founder, Kanei Uechi, Sr., traveled to Fukien province to further his skills in the martial arts.
While there, Uechi supposedly learned a kenpo style known as pangai-noon. However, current research indicates that therewas never a style known as pangai-noon. Conversely, pangai-noon refers to the Fukien Amoy dialect term, pan-ngi-nang, which means "half-hard, half soft." Presumably, through the passage of time, the style came to be known as pangai-noon on Okinawa, as teachers taught their students the importance of being both hard and soft in the execution of their martial movements.
Another explanation is that Uechi's teachers may have camouflaged the name of their style so Uechi could not disclose the true identity of this secret system. It is believed that what he learned was actually ngo cho kun.
Like Goju-ryu, the principles and movements of Uechi-ryu are exceedingly similar to ngo cho kun. Again, the similarities are by no means coincidental.
Yet another interesting comparison is the high regard Okinawan karate and ngo cho kun place on the practice and perfection of kata. Karate practitioners believe the sanchin kata is the heart of their system; likewise for the practitioners of ngo cho kun. What appear to be simple, basic movements are actually abbreviations of inner, hidden movements. To understand this, we must analyze the kata practiced in both Fukien province and Okinawa.
In both, ngo cho kun and Okinawan karate, the kata assumes a perfect circle, the beginning is the end, the end is the beginning. The student begins and ends his training with sanchin/sam chien. By studying the form, the student is exposed to its movements, which to him are simple and basic.
The movements may appear to be just preludes, or preliminary steps to higher forms of learning or technique, but in reality, sanchin/sam chien is the core of ngo cho kun, Uechi-ryu, and Goju-ryu. Every movement in these systems derive their roots from this form. In order for the student to become proficient in either Okinawan karate or ngo cho kun he must know this form. Once he passes this fundamental form, he progresses to a higher form, where he is taught the different movements and techniques hidden in the seemingly basic sanchin/sam chien form. In reality, the sanchin/sam chien form holds the key to all the advanced techniques. The student begins to see how these simple movements provide the clues to discover greater techniques and thereby aspires to know more and seek a deeper understanding of the movements. The importance of this form may be likened to the roots of a tree: without its roots, a tree is lifeless, dead. The roots are the sustaining power of the tree; this form is the life and sustaining power of ngo cho kun, Goju-ryu, and Uechi-ryu.
Mr. Co has written a good book on Five Ancestors Kung Fu. In addition to having a nice section on the history of the style, he covers two forms (one of which is Sam Chien) and the application of many ngo cho kun techniques.
Hope that you find this interesting.
Thanks for the information Jeffrey. Years ago, Bob Campbell (who spent many years in the Philippenes) sent me a copy of this book. I agree that there is a very close relationship between Five Ancestors Kung Fu and Uechi-ryu. GEM
Many traditional Chinese Martial Arts have traced their origin to the Nan (Southern) Shaolin Temple. In the last couple of decades excavations have revealed three possible southern Shaolin temples in Fujian (福建) Province. There is one at Jiulianshan (九蓮山) near Putian (莆田) village, the second called Zhenguo Dong Chan Shaolin Temple (鎮國東禪少林寺) at the foot of the Qingyuan Shan (清源山) in Quanzhou (泉州 ) and the third in Fuqing (福清) county.
Putian(莆田) Shaolin Temple This reconstructed temple (lies at the foot of the Nine Lotus Mountain of town Xitian Wei of Putian. It was rediscovered after nearly 300 years in the general survey of the national historical relics (1986-1988). The ruins were located in the hills and mountains region in the north of Putian and belonged to the Linshan village of Xi Tian town of Putian county, with about 12 kilometers of urban straight line south to Putian. The ruins were located in nine lotus mountains (its elevation is nearly 500 meters above sea level), with three sides such as east, north and southeast, surrounded by mountains.
The Google Earth coordinates are 25 deg 32' 33.34" N and 119 deg 02' 08.80" E.
The ruins are about 200 meters long from east to west, about 150 meters wide from north to south, and the whole area are nearly 30,000 square meters.
Quanzhou(泉州) Shaolin Temple Quanzhou Shaolin Temple was built in the period of Qian Fuzhong of Tang Dynasty (A.D.874-879 ), for the first time. It was originally known as "Zhen Guo East Zen Shaolin Temple" in Song and Yuan Dynasties. The monastery was burnt twice and rebuilt in the year of the 10th year of Xuan De of Ming Dynasty (A.D. 1435 ). Evantually it became a large Buddhist temple.
The Google Earth coordinates are 24 deg 55' 19.16" N and 118 deg 36' 34.95" E.
This temple just on the outskirt of Quanzhou has adopted Wuzuquan (五祖拳 Ngo Cho/Gor Chor Kun) as the foundation martial art. Wuzuquan was brought back to this temple from the Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore.
(Note: Wuzuquan is the ancestor art of Okinawa Karate.)
Fuqing(福清) Shaolin Temple Since 1995, archaeological experts have found Fuqing Shaolin Temple ruins in Fuqing. Through excavation and textual research, the area of ruins is up to 5000 square meters. The monastery was built in Tang and Song Dynasties. The temple was designed along traditional chinese temple architecture and built on terraced hill slopes. Excavation has revealed a large amount of pottery, porcelain, coins of Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, as well as the everyday appliances such as stone mortar, stone mill etc. These artefacts were carved with the word "少林" (Shaolin).
Four ancient traffic roads to foreign countries and more than ten ancient bridges around monastery in those years were found.
The Google Earth coordinates are 25 deg 43' 58.42" N and 119 deg 09' 06.84" E.
In 1994, with the approval of Bureau of Religious Affairs of People's Government of Fujian Province, Fuqing city rebuilt Shaolin Temple near the original ruins of Shaolin Temple. The whole area of the Monastery is 66,900 square meters. Monastery building and its attached construction area is 16,300 square meters.
So far, the main buildings have been completed. This temple is now a tourist attraction to showcase the long history of this temple.
So which one is the real Nan Shaolin Temple? Historical documents and the archaeological diggings supports the Fuqing temple as the location of Nan Shaolin.
When was Nan Shaolin Temple burnt? The year when the Southern Shaolin Temple was burnt is unknown but we do have a reference point. In the Wing Chun lineages that traced its origin to Foshan (佛山), there is a reference to one of the early master of Wing Chun named Cheung Ng. Cheung Ng has been traced to exist in historical record. Ip Ching, one of the two sons of Ip Man noted in his research below.
There was a book by one Mak Siu Har -“A Study on the History of Cantonese Opera” (now kept in the Hong Kong City Hall library)
In it there was a paragraph, roughly as follows: before the reign of Yung Cheng (Yongzheng Emperor 雍正帝 1723-1735), the development of Cantonese opera was very limited. This was due to defective organization and unclear division of labor. In the years of Yung Cheng, Cheung Ng of Wu Pak, also known as Tan-Sau Ng, brought his skills to Fat Shan (佛山 Foshan) and organized the Hung Fa Wui Koon. The book also records: Besides being very accomplished in Chinese opera, Cheung Ng was especially proficient in martial arts. His one Tan-Sau was peerless throughout the martial arts world.
Another piece of information appears on page 631, Volume III of the book “A History of Chinese Opera” by Mang Yiu, published by Chuen Kay Literature Publishers, first printed in 1968. “For some reasons, Cheung Ng could not stay on in the capital, so he fled and took refuge in Fat Shan. This was during the reign of Yung Cheng. This man, nicknamed Tan-Sau Ng was a character "unsurpassed in literary and military skills, and excellent in music and drama". He was especially proficient in the techniques of Siu Lam.
After settling down in Fat Shan, he passed on his knowledge in traditional opera and martial arts to the Hung Suyen (Red Boat) followers, and established the Hung Fa Wui Koon in Fat Shan. Today, Cantonese opera groups revere him as Jo-si (Founding Master), and refer to him as Master Cheung”.
This is the only written reference to a master of Wing Chun and assuming that we accept the written account, then the Southern Shaolin Temple must have been burnt between 1644 and 1723.
From the burning of the Southern Shaolin Temple and its rebuilding, the circle is now completed. Perhaps the Southern Shaolin Temple will one day be populated with monks and nuns as a religious order and Southern Shaolin martial arts will experience a renewal.
Note 1. Wing Chun (詠春), Southern Praying Mantis or Nan Tang Lang (南派螳螂) or Nam Tong Long, Hong Quan(Hung Kien), Gor Chor (Wuzu) or Five Ancestors, Choy Li Fut, Pak Mei and White Tiger System have their origin in Southern China. Were they all influenced by Nan Shaolin Temple?
2. If you doubt the existence of the Nan Shaolin Temple , here is a good article written by eric88ling who has been chronicling Traditional Chinese Martial Arts.
The Fukien White Crane does not claimed to be from the Shaolin Temple but it is from Fukien province and hence a southern style martial art.
In this section, our narratives focused on the drama that was to take place at the parole office in Concord, California. We explore the sexual dynamics in the Garrido’s household. For many years now till August 2009, Phillip Garrido had 2 wives. Nancy Garrido lived in the front house. In the back garden, the young 'wife' Alyssa had her tent. It was an alibi constructed by Phillip and Nancy Garrido as part of the 'Alyssa' identity. For here during the day, Alyssa played the part of 'older' sister to Angel and Starlit (Scarlett?). At night, she was Phillip Garrido's sex partner. For most nights, Phillip Garrido slept with her in the 'family' tent after the 2 girls are put to bed in the house with Nancy.
On the previous day, Tues, August 25, Phillip Garrido had travelled to University of California, Berkeley with the 2 girls, Angel and Starlit (Scarlett?). His appointment with the campus police officer Lisa Campbell was at 2 pm. Officer Ally Jacobs had joined in the meeting at the request of Officer Lisa Campbell. The previous day Mon, August 24, Phillip Garrido had turned up at the special event office of Officer Lisa Jacob requesting for permission to hold an event for his religious organisation called God’s Desire. Officer Lisa Campbell had told Phillip Garrido to come back the next day and she had made the appointment for the meeting at 2 pm the next day. After Phillip Garrido left her office with the 2 girls, Officer Lisa Campbell had spoken to Officer Ally Jacobs. Officer Ally Jacobs then carried out a check of Phillip Garrido. She found out that he was sex offender. Officer Ally Jacobs decided to sit in for the interview of Phillip Garrido with Officer Lisa Campbell. The appointment had been made for Tuesday, August 25 at 2 pm.
2 pm, Tues August 25 - Phillip Garrido arrived at the special event office of the University of California, Berkeley with the 2 girls, Angel and Starlit (Scarlett?). In the interview which lasted about 15 min, Officer Ally Jacobs had managed to engage the girls in a conversation while Officer Lisa Campbell talked with Phillip Garrido. Feeling a sense of unease, Officer Ally Jacobs had phoned Phillip Garrido’s parole agent Santos. He was not available to take the call and she had left a message on his voice messaging machine.
According to the officer, Garrido appeared to have a mental illness, and if he was required to take medication, it was apparent he was not. Because of his sex offender status, the officer was also concerned for the safety of the two young girls accompanying Garrido. The officer noted that the girls, who called Garrido “daddy,” and whom Garrido referred to as his daughters, acted as if Garrido’s strange behavior was normal. They had also made reference to an older sister aged 29.
After 3 pm, Tues August 25 - Phillip Garrido left his meeting at the UC Berkeley at probably about 2:15 pm but more likely later. Information from google map indicate that the drive home would have taken about 44 min.
Parole Officers Searched House That same afternoon, the parole officer, Eddie Santos received the voice message left by Officer Ally Jacobs. He attempted to call her back and was advised by a records technician that she had left for the day. Together with another parole officer, La Grassa, they had gone to Phillip Garrido’s house at 1554 Walnut Avenue, Antioch. They left the office at about 1800 hours. They handcuffed Phillip Garrido and agent La Grassa stayed with Garrido outside the house while agent Santos searched the house but could not find the 2 girls. They found Nancy Garrido and her mother-in-law, Patricia Franzen(Garrido).
Back to the Parole Office The officers then took Phillip Garrido back to the parole office. According to Google map, the drive would take about 23 minutes from 1554 Walnut Avenue to the parole office in Concord. During the trip, Garrido was adamant that he had done nothing wrong. He told them that the 2 girls were daughters of a relative and one of the parent had picked them up.
At the parole office, agent Santos reviewed Garrido's file. He then contacted G. Sims, Fairfield II U.S. (A) and reviewed Garrido's file with him. Although Garrido had a "no contact with minors" special condition of parole (SCOP), they decided there was no nexus to the SCOP because he had no prior or current convictions for PC288 noted in the field file. The 2 parole officers then drove him back to his Residence of Record (ROR) and instructed to report back the next day (Aug 26 2009) at 0800 hours to discuss this matter and his conditions. He was also instructed to bring all that was living with him.
Back to Walnut Avenue Taking into consideration the driving time back and forth and the searching of the house and the questioning and reviewing at the parole office, we assumed that it took at least an hour and half.
By the time that Phillip Garrido was returned to his home, it would easily be 7:30 pm.
That evening dinner would have been disrupted. The trip to the University of California, Berkeley had turned into a disaster. It was a trip that he had to do to promote his new church, God's Desire. (Note: God's Desire was incorporated in California on April 24 2008). It was his new venture to sell God. Instead now, the parole officers were onto him. They were now aware of the 2 younger girls.
Since this was a Tuesday, we assumed Alyssa spent the day reading in her tent and gardening . Perhaps she checked the emails for Print for Less from the Personal Computer in the house. On that Tuesday, we believe that she was menstruating. On those day when she was having her period, Phillip Garrido kept his distance from her. Most likely, her period had started the previous Sunday, August 23, when she last slept with him in the air-conditioned shed which also had a TV, VCR, PC and a fish tank. In the photos taken on August 26, the beddings can be seen piled onto of the couch.
When the parole officers turned up at the house, the 2 girls were in the backyard garden with Alyssa or they could have just scooted to the backyard garden on a signal from Phillip or Nancy Garrido. They would have been well-trained on that. Alyssa would have been forewarned of the danger of discovery. Perhaps that evening they stayed in the backyard compound till Phillip Garrido had been returned to the house and the parole officers had left. Since Alyssa was menstruating, Phillip Garrido slept with Nancy in the house. This also contributed to the lack of communication and coordination between Phillip Garrido and Alyssa which set the stage for the discovery of Alyssa's real identity.
We have drawn out the whole compound paying in particular, the backyard compound where Alyssa was kept. To see the photos taken by Nick Stern and others, you can go to this page here where you can click on the arrows to see photos of the actual backyard compound and the inside of the tents and sheds. The drawing is the outcome of analysing those photos and they are accurate to the state of the backyard compound as it was on Aug 26 2009.
None of the structures drawn here exist in the backyard compound anymore as the authorities have dismantled them. The latest google satellite photo shows an empty backyard devoid of any structures. A few trees have been left in place.
Alyssa's Tent In the drawing shown on the right, Alyssa's tent was located at the top left corner of the backyard compound. This was the furthermost location from the road (Walnut Avenue) at the front of the house. How long has the tent been in that location?
Alyssa's tent was isolated from the rest of the backyard compound. A hedge fence isolated it from the family tent. The 'family tent' was where she lived out the latter years of her captivity as his 'wife'. In other words, she slept with him almost nightly in this tent until about the last month of her captivity. During the last month of her captivity, we believed she slept with Phillip Garrido in the air-conditioned shed due to the summer heat.
Although immediately since her recovery, she has stated to FBI that no sexual activities took place between Phillip Garrido and her after the birth of Starlit (Scarlett?) in November 1997, all evidence from the photos and accounts from the neighbours told a different story.
On the left of Alyssa's tent was the 8 ft fence separating the backyard compound from the neighbor and on the right was the dilapidated shed. And next to the dilapidated shed and by the back fence was the famous 'Welcome' sign hanging from the tree.
In front of the tent, there were 3 foldable chairs where we assumed that Alyssa spend time with Angel and Starlit (Scarlett?). Perhaps this was where they sat to enjoy the sunshine and also where 'big sister' Alyssa read to them and taught them the basics of reading and writing.
The books by the entrance to the tent were largely books on cats. Alyssa had limited education herself and she was in grade 5 when she was kidnapped. That was all she was capable of in terms of educating the girls.
The photo showed the tent as it was on Aug 26 2009. The tent looked tattered and many part of the tent had been patched with brown packaging tape. Part of the back of the tent fly sheeting had been ripped off by the wind. Overall the tent looked tattered. Perhaps it was set up after November 1997 which has been reported to be the birth month of Starlit (Scarlett?). It has been reported that the birth certificate issued for Starlit showed November 1997 to be her birth month. The name on the birth certificate was not reported but we believed that it is Scarlett. Angel was born in April 1994 and we believed her name has remained the same.
By the front of the tent were some plants growing in pots. Alyssa appeared to have taken up gardening and the plants in the pots were perhaps fairly recent plantings.
To the left of the tent and by the fence, there was a 2-person adult swing and a small round table in front of it. Stretched between her tent and the fence was those orange-colored mesh which was quite common around the garden.
This part of the backyard was her comfort zone and she had kept it tidy compare to the rest of the backyard compound which was more like a junk yard. The leaves had been swept into a pile perhaps for burning at a later date.
In the middle of the compound, there was a large dilapidated shed. What was stored in the front half of shed is not known as no photos were taken of it. The back half of it were full of junk including a pumpkin head. The back wall of this shed bordered another neighbor's yard. The back half of this shed had a dilapidated wooden wall only on one side facing one of the neighbours, Mike Rogers. The other side facing Alyssa tent did not have a wall and that was how Mike Rogers could observed the activities on this part of the backyard.
According to the neighbor Mike Rogers, over the last 3 years (prior to August 26 2009) period, he saw about 8-10 of these parties held in that backyard compound outside Alyssa's tent. There would be group of 8-10 men who were semi-dressed queuing by the dilapidated shed near the entrance to the tent. They would high-five each other as one exited and another entered the tent. Mike Rogers used his compound for storage and does not live there. The assumption is that these men were queuing outside Alyssa's tent for sex. The Welcome sign hanging from the tree by dilapidated shed near the back fence seemed to confirm his accounts of what he saw. The sign was welcoming customers to that backyard compound. In other words, we think prostitution did take place in that backyard compound.
Family Tent Nancy was Phillip Garrido's legally married wife and Alyssa was forced to live in this tent as his other 'wife'. After her recovery, it was reported that their relationship was 'almost like a marriage' and Jaycee Dugard has strong feelings for Phillip Garrido. We believe that is so as she has conditioned herself to accept her fate and lived out her life as his wife. For this reason, we called this tent the family tent. The only bed in the whole backyard compound was found in this tent.
On the other side of Alyssa's tent was the family tent. This photo of the family tent was taken from location E. Alyssa's tent was hidden from view by this tent and also by a hedge between them. This tent appeared to be in better conditioned than Alyssa's tent perhaps because it was sheltered underneath some trees. Aerial photographs taken by news helicopter did not show the tent to be visible as it was hidden by the dense tree leaves. The older google satellite photo did show the tent. The trees looked barren with a few brown leaves so it is likely they were taken during the colder months.
In the foreground, there was a rectangular wooden structure with the orange mesh stretched across it. Perhaps there was a plan to grow some plants there. Just in front of it, a covered wire mesh can be seen. Perhaps, some tiny plants were growing and had to be protected by the wire mesh.
On the left of the photo was the 8-ft fence separating it from the next door neighbor. By the fence, a big padded garden bench was located. It was big enough and padded like a mattress to accommodate a copulating couple.
On the right, a partially hidden tree and next to it, a broken bar stool with a water bottle on it. On the right of the tent, some bushes had been planted and that would hid part of the tent when viewed further to the right.
Junk tent and Air-conditioned shed The photo shows the family tent, a tent behind the air-conditioned shed.
This part of the garden was where Alyssa is thought to have been initially incarcerated during the earlier years of her captivity. In particular, the 'tool' shed, air-conditioned shed, the sound-proofed shed and the children's tent were probably the 4 main shelters in the earlier years of her captivity.
This tent looked to be in good condition. Perhaps it was a fairly recent addition. Like all the tents, it probably had wooden pallets for flooring. The blue tarpaulin made up the ground sheeting.
This tent was full of junk and broken female toys without clothes. Presumably the junk like cardboard boxes were kept for bonfire.
This tent was featured in initial news report. On the day this photo was taken (Aug 26 2009), this tent did not look like it was used for anything other than storage.
On the left of the photo and near the entrance to the tent, there appeared to be 2 bins lying on its side. In all the tents and sheds, there were no rubbish bins shown anywhere.
Children's Tent Visible in the photo are the children's tent hidden under the blue tarp, air-conditioned shed, tool shed and the roof of the sound-proofed shed.
Although this photo was taken on Aug 26 2009, the children's tent was still hidden underneath the blue tarpaulin.
This tent was likely used by the young girls to store their belongings. There were plastic storage dresser and clothings. No beds or beddings could be seen although there was a couch inside and a mattress. Hence the conclusion that they would have been used during the day only. At night, the 2 younger girls slept elsewhere, most likely in the main house. Hence the comment by Phillip Garrido that the girls slept in his arms every night. Quite likely, he meant that he put them to bed every night. And after putting the 2 younger girls in bed in the main house, he retreated back to the backyard compound to spend the night with Alyssa.
They were living as man and 'wife' in that backyard compound. Hence the comment by Alyssa that their relationship was almost like a marriage. Not legally married but sleeping together like a married couple. That comment was to her family meaning her mother Terry Probyn.
In earlier interviews with FBI after her recovery, she has stated that no sexual activity between her and Phillip Garrido took place after the birth of her second child, Starlit (Scarlett?) in November 1997.
Air-Conditioned Shed This photo of the air-conditioned shed was taken on Aug 26 2009. We think this was the shed that Alyssa and Phillip Garrido slept together during the last month of July-Aug 2009 before her recovery. In the OIG report, it was mentioned that for 32 days from Jul 23 - Aug 23, Phillip Garrido GPS signal was lost for 9 hours or more each night. We speculated that he spent those nights in that air-conditioned shed because of the hot summer nights.
From photos taken showing the inside of the shed, there was folded beddings lying on the couch. We can conclude that the shed was recently used. The question is who was/were using it? Was it Phillip Garrido on his own or was Alyssa with him every night? Or was it the 2 younger girls using the shed?
A likely scenario was that Phillip Garrido put the 2 younger girls to bed in the house every night. Later on, he would returned to the backyard compound and for those 32 nights, slept in the air-conditioned shed. That would explained the loss of the GPS received signal due to signal blockage by the surrounding walls of the air-conditioned shed. Did Alyssa join him in that shed? The more likely answer is yes. By then, after 18 years of captivity, she was living with him as his 'wife'. Hence her comment about their relationship as almost like a marriage.
Workshed/Classroom This shed probably functioned as a classroom and also as a workshed. Seen in the photo were 2 microwave ovens and also a map hanging from the ceiling. Three chairs, benches and a desk could be seen in the photo. A fluorescent lamp could be seen above the far-end workbench. Another lamp could be seen at the left far-end of the shed. Presumably, the microwave ovens were used to heat up meals. There were no cooking facilities or even a fridge for storing perishables like milk. Some plastic containers rest above the microwave ovens. Also, a storage plastic container is present and rest above the microwave radios.
On the floor were files/folders in its usual disarray just like the rest of the garden.
On the left of the photo were wire mesh baskets hung down from the ceiling. Purpose unknown although those type of wire mesh baskets are popular for storing vegetables like onions, shallots, garlics, spring onions etcetera in the kitchen.
A blue towel was draped over the back of a swivel chair and has a table. A reddish water container sat on one end of the table.
The far-end of the shed led to a doorway. No information on what was at the back of this shed behind that doorway.
We can safely conclude that this shed functions more like an office and classroom in the backyard compound. It was certainly not used for sleeping as the flooring was not carpeting and there was also no bedding seen in the photo.